In 2018, The Ponca Tribe of Indians Oklahoma (Southern Poncas) has 3,783 enrolled members. By 1865, the last treaty signed with the Ponca, ceded an additional 30,000 acres of Ponca land to the U.S. Government, reducing the Ponca Reservation near Niobrara Nebraska, in what is now Knox and Boyd counties, to a mere 96,000 acres. Despite their original reservation having been established in 1858, the Ponca suffered decades of broken treaties, a lack of financial support from the U.S. Government, and ongoing attacks by the neighboring Sioux, with whom they were sworn enemies. Involvement in this warfare continued to reduce the population of the Ponca. United States Department of Commerce, Frederick B. Dent, Secretary. 5. These Ponca chiefs were documented by the Mormons as: There were many Mormons who wrote journals about their life and enjoyable experiences among the Ponca. LAST NAME. The long march took a heavy toll on the tribe, over half of whom were women and children. It is also believed that it was at this time that the Arikara showed the Omaha, Ponca, Iowa group how to build an earthlodge, and in return, the Omaha gave the Marinara permission to perform certain aspects of the Hethuska Society traditions and dances (Howard, 1965, p. 14) (Duncan, 1997, p. 33). This page was last edited on 19 August 2017, at 19:57. 211-213). Of the 3,787 enrolled tribal members, 3000 live within the state of Oklahoma. This policy effected some 109 tribes and bands including 13,263 Indian people and 1,365,801 acres of trust land. Some 50 days later, the Ponca chiefs reached the Otoe Reservation along the Kansas/Nebraska border. The Ponca were suffering from malaria in this new country and many died from it. This is a list of federally recognized Native American Tribes in the U.S. state of Oklahoma.Oklahoma has the third largest numbers of tribes, behind Alaska and California. The Ponca Tribe of Oklahoma is governed by an elected business committee and tribal chairperson and vice-chairperson. Also, 350 acres had been planted with corn and other vegetables (Foreman, 1946, pp. As time progressed, the Ponca and other semi-sedentary tribes along the Upper Missouri River, such as the Omaha, Arikara, Pawnee, Mandan and Hidatsa, who were attached to their earthlodge villages and cornfields, were no match for the nomadic Dakota and Lakota, who were very mobile, well-armed and always knew the exact strength and precise location of these tribes. Iron Whip – principle chief of Gray Blanket village (brother of two Bulls). By 1950 the U.S. Government formulated a policy which called for the dissolving and termination of all Indian Tribes. Since the “War of 1812,” the Sauk Tribe had continued to make war on the Omaha and the Ponca earthlodge villages which lay between the Sauk Territory and the buffalo herds to the west. On behalf of the Ponca Business Committee and Ponca Tribe, we send our condolences to the Powell, Thomas, Leclair, and Kemble families. It is therefore safe to say that the population of the Ponca Tribe in 1874 consisted of a range between 600 and 769 individuals. 3, 1877 (xix, 287), May 27, 1878 (xx,??? I am the great granddaughter of Lucy and Garland Kent, Sr., daughter of Curtis and Francis Primeaux and sister of Lexia and Alec Kent. In the summer of 1846, an advanced party of 400 Mormons were heading west to find a route through the Rocky Mountains after being driven from their homes in Nauvoo, Illinois earlier that year. I am a descendant of the Ponca Tribe and of the Wa’zha’she Clan. Ponca Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma Ponca Tribe of Nebraska. 08/25/2018 . Operating as usual. At first they warred with the Marinara, but later a peace was determined by performing the wa-wan or calumet ceremony. Ponca Tribe of Nebraska PO Box 288 Niobrara NE 68760 voice 402.857.3391 fax 402.857.3736 official website of the Nebraska/Northern Ponca Tribe Ponca Tribe of Oklahoma 20 White Eagle Drive Ponca City OK 74601 voice 580.762.9567 fax 580.762.2743 Official website of the Oklahoma/Southern Ponca Tribe Population: 1984: Total enrollment 2,028. COMMENTS; ABRAHAMSON: Bertha (Littlecook) 11 … These figures total 769, which differs from Fletcher's statement, “the total population of the tribe at that time was 733.” Fletcher further states that “there were eight chiefs, each of whom had his band,” and she gives a breakdown of the population among each as follows: According to Alice Fletcher in The Omaha Tribe (Fletcher & Laflesche, 1911, p. 51) by November 1874, the total population of the Ponca was counted as 733 persons, divided into three villages along the Niobrara River. Kathleen Powell born June 27, 1948 in Ponca City, Oklahoma and passed away January 8, 2021. However, they were vulnerable from attack by larger nomadic tribes as evidenced by an event that took place in 1824. The Ponca chiefs made the journey to Indian Territory in Oklahoma, visiting many different land reserves which were equally barren and unsuitable for agriculture. Located on the North side of the settlement of White Eagle, Ponca Indian Reservation, Kay County, Oklahoma. All Rights Reserved. Upon arriving, he learned that a party of 30 Ponca men had been returning home from a friendly visit with the Oglala Lakota to the north, when they were attacked by a group of Brule or Sicangu Lakota. Gen. George Crook was then given orders by Secretary of the Interior Carl Schurz to arrest the run-a-ways and return them to Indian Territory. The Kay County town of Tonkawa is headquarters for the Tonkawa Tribe of Oklahoma, where a museum preserves the tribe’s cultural heritage. However, figures presented do not add up. The other is the Ponca Tribe of Nebraska. This was believed to be a means of self-preservation for the now smaller tribe of Ponca, whose lands were in-between the Lakota and Pawnee territories. Grant agreed to the move if the Ponca were willing. 3.1 Correspondence and Census; 4 … Then a grand council was established to reach an agreement on the terms of the peace, and rules of war and hunting. both Omaha and Ponca legends say they were living in a village near a lake when the sacred cedar pole was found. The Ponca Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma is headquartered in Ponca City, Oklahoma. The Iowa continued further south almost to the Platte River, making a village near present day Florence, Nebraska in Douglas County. Buffalo Bull – head chief (also known as Little Bear. The more powerful Sioux, also known as the Lakota, encroached on their land base. It was not until after the United States military subdued the Sauk in 1834 during the Black Hawk War, that the Ponca and the Omaha gained some relief. The full-bloods formed a tipi village, while … James O. Dorsey, for many years a missionary and amateur ethnographer among the Ponca and the Omaha in the late 19th Century, states that later the neighboring Yankton Dakota Tribe made war on the Omaha, Ponca and Iowa while they camped on the Big Sioux River, which forced the group to travel west to the present day site of Lake Andes, in Choteau County, South Dakota. As a result of the 2000 census, it was determined that there were 4,858 individuals in the United States that identified themselves as being Ponca alone, or Ponca in combination with another tribe or race. When the agent returned to Nebraska, Standing Bearand other tribal members signe… The Ponca were very unhappy in this location and pleaded for a better location in the Indian Territory. However, by the time they entered the camp, the Pawnee had fled. (Fletcher & Laflesche, 1911, p. 218). The Fish Smell Poncas contented themselves with looting the deserted Pawnee hunting camp, taking such things as dried meat, moccasins, leggings, and rawhide lariats left behind. This archaeological site known as “Ponca Fort,” has been dated to circa 1700, and closely resembles the middle Mississippian fortified towns found in Ohio which date to 800 through 1550. However, after the trial, President Rutherford B. Hayes assigned a commission to investigate details and found that the Ponca were being unjustly treated. DIED. White Eagle – son of Iron Whip (has hereditary leadership rites). The group that traveled down river earned the name u-ga-xpa or Quapaw, meaning “with the current” or “downstream.” The Quapaw continued south along the east bank of the Mississippi River into what is now Arkansas, and these descriptive names were already in place by the time Hernando de Soto met the Quapaw Tribe when he crossed the Mississippi River in 1541 (Fletcher & Laflesche, 1911, p. 36) and (Baird, 1989, p. 14). In 1875 a Ponca agent visited President Ulysses S. Grant to discuss moving the Ponca to the Indian Territory in present-day Oklahoma. In July of 1878, the Ponca were moved again to this new parcel of 101,894 acres, and it was set apart as the Ponca Reservation. The Ponca, linguistically related to the Sioux, had settled in the area of northeast Nebraska and southeast South Dakota, having migrated there from the Ohio River Valley. ), and Mar. The city was named after the Ponca tribe. 253-254). It was then that the first treaty was made between the Ponca and the U.S. to establish “perpetual peace and friendship” (Howard, 1965, p. 27). By 1906, just one year prior to Oklahoma statehood, the total Ponca population was 833, divided as 570 Southern Ponca in Oklahoma and 263 Northern Ponca in Nebraska. IDA Treaties Explorer Partners About Treaties Explorer. Beginning in 1856, although the Ponca tried to hunt in the spring and the fall in the traditional way, they were frequently turned away by Teton Lakota war parties. Their tribal jurisdictional area includes parts of Kay and Noble counties. According to Dorsey (1884, pp. This is the site of its former reservation and land allotted to 73 individual tribal members in 1891. They planted corn and other crops, hunted buffalo occasionally and traded for many of their goods. It was the ft. Laramie treaty of 1868 that forever altered the course of Ponca history. When Bear Shield, the eldest 12 year old son of Chief Standing Bear died in 1878, the Chief was unwilling to bury him in this strange country. My name is Nadia Lynn Kent. This was followed in 1826 by yet another treaty, in which the Federal Government agreed to receive the Ponca “…into their friendship and under their protection.” it should be noted, that there are no records that exist to date, showing that any member of the Ponca Tribe have ever killed white settlers or soldiers, or have ever taken up arms against the United States of America. Their tribal jurisdictional area includes parts of Kay and Noble counties.  Current administration Picture amber fields of wheat and pastureland dotted with oil derricks pumping black gold, as well as wind turbines capturing the Oklahoma wind. By 1770, the Omaha had migrated to a site on Omaha Creek to build a fortified earth lodge village by themselves which they called “Big Village” in present day Thurston County, Nebraska. Casey Camp Horinek, the Ponca Tribe of Oklahoma's environmental ambassador, speaks at a Black Lives Matter protest earlier this summer in Ponca City. The United States Government denied the right of Standing Bear to obtain a writ of habeas corpus on the grounds that “an Indian is not a person within the meaning of the law.”. Then, according to John John Champe (cited by Wood, 1959, p. 10), the Omaha and Iowa continued moving further south to build a village along Bow Creek near present day Wynot, Nebraska in Cedar County about 1735. This termination removed 442 Ponca from the tribal rolls, dispossessing them of 834 acres in Nebraska. The Ponca Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma, also known as the Ponca Nation, is one of two federally recognized tribes of Ponca people. In 1936 the Oklahoma Indian Welfare Act paved the way for the Southern Ponca in Oklahoma … Then, figures taken in 1937 showed a total population of Ponca was 1,222, divided as 825 Southern Ponca in Oklahoma and 397 Northern Ponca in Nebraska. The Ponca tribe separated from the Omaha tribe in the early 18th century as they were migrating west from the Great Lakes region. During the 1830s the Ponca were generally thought to be allies with elements of the Yankton Dakota and the Teton Lakota and frequently joined with them in warfare against the Pawnee. Historical and archaeological evidence verifies that the Omaha, Ponca and Iowa as a group, then traveled west to build a fortified village on the Big Sioux River, north of Sioux Falls, South Dakota (Howard, 1965, p. 15). From this time, the Ponca have been divided into the Northern Ponca of Nebraska and the Southern Ponca of Oklahoma (Howard, 1965, p. 38). Black Warrior – a chief of the 2nd rank (nephew of Buffalo Bull). Then the Ponca migrated by themselves, downstream along the Missouri River, then pushed westward and settled in Nebraska near the Niobrara River. when they arrived at the Mississippi River the group was separated when trying to cross. They migrated up the Des Moines River to its headwaters in what is now Minnesota and built a village for a time near the pipestone quarries. The information furnished to Fletcher by the Office of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs showed the Wa-in-xu-de or “Gray Blanket” village was said to have a population of 377 persons, the Hu-bthon or “Fish Smell” village had 144 persons, and the “Point” village had 248 persons. (O'shea & Ludwickson, 1992, pp. In 1936 the Oklahoma Indian Welfare Act paved the way for the Southern Ponca in Oklahoma to create a constitution and by-laws still in use today. Cession 628. Prior to 1500 AD, this collective group traveled from their original home in the Southeast, down the Ohio River to its mouth (Dorsey, 1886, p. 218). The Poncas, who were allotted in 1890, saw their land go to non-Indian settlers through a September 1893 land run, an event that its Euro-American participants and their descendants celebrated. Therefore, Standing Bear and sixty-six followers left the Ponca Reservation in January 1879 on foot, following a wagon containing the body of his dead son, as they headed north to the traditional Ponca burial grounds in Nebraska. 20 White Eagle DrivePonca City, OK 74601(580) 762-8104Monday - Friday 8:00am - 5:00pm, List of Contact Numbers below for departments, and programs within the Ponca Tribe of Oklahoma. Ponca Celebration Grand Entry 8pm Main Arena . The Ponca made first contact with Spanish traders in 1789, and in 1790 their estimated population was approximately three thousand strong. The name Ponca is a combination of Siouan dialects and has a symbolic connotation of 'sacred head.' 3, 1881 (xxi, 422). Later it is believed, the Ponca returned to build a village with the Omaha and the Iowa at the mouth of the White River. They established winter camps along the Arkansas River, and they continued to practice their tribal customs. Copyright © 2018 Ponca Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma. Road will end. Traditionally, peoples of both tribes have spoken the Omaha-Ponca language, part of the Siouan language family. The Omaha Daily Herald Newspaper publicized the plight of the Ponca group, and it was carried by many other newspapers across the country. Established -- 15 August 1876 Agency (BIA) -- Ponca Agency Principal tribes -- Ponca Population --Contents. Editor’s Note: This article is part of the multi-part series “Exiled to Indian Country” about the exile of Native Americans. Turn right on Riverview Road for about 1/2 mile. Welcome to the sovereign and self-governing lands of The Ponca Tribe of Indians Of Oklahoma. From that time, the Iowa never again built a village near the Omaha (Fletcher & Laflesche, 1911, p. 86). The chiefs were then forced to make the journey home in the middle of winter, without money, food or an interpreter. San Francisco, CA – After suffering for years with poisoned water and serious health issues due to fracking and injection wells on and near their reservation the governing body of the Ponca Nation of Oklahoma voted to pass a statute recognizing the rights of nature on Friday, October 20, 2017. Soon, the Ponca learned the value of being the middlemen in trade between Europeans and those tribes along the Upper Missouri, and in 1795 they began the practice of stopping and raiding trading craft as they went up the Missouri River (Howard, 1965, p. 25). Their tribal jurisdiction spans parts of Kay and Noble counties. Later in 1847 the Mormons settled in the Rocky Mountains in what is now Salt Lake City, Utah. The Ponca Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma is headquartered in Ponca City, Oklahoma. 08/25/2018 . Of the 30 Ponca, only 12 returned alive. When the 8 Ponca chiefs reached their homeland, they found that since the Ponca had refused to go to Indian Territory of their own free will, a government order had been issued on 12 April 1877 to force their removal. Cut off from the buffalo and fearful of leaving their villages to farm outlying fields, the Ponca were often at the point of starvation. In 1962, the Congress of the United States decided that the Northern Ponca Tribe should be terminated. The Ponca Restoration Bill giving the Northern Ponca federal recognition was introduced to the U.S. Senate, passed, and was signed into law by President Bush on 31 October 1990. They are elected to four year terms. Poverty and disease would continue to take its toll on the Ponca over the years, however their populations steadily increased. United States Indigenous Peoples of the US Oklahoma, United States Genealogy Indigenous Peoples of Oklahoma Ponca Indian Reservation (Oklahoma) The Ponca Indian Reservation was located in Oklahoma. She was a Ponca Elder who always showed compassion to others. The information furnished to Fletcher by the Office of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs showed the Wa-in-xu-de or “Gray Blanket” village was said to have a population of 377 persons, the Hu-Bthon or “Fish Smell” village had 144 persons, and the “Point” village had 248 persons. The Ponca Tribe was approached by a government agent from the Indian Bureau, who selected 8 chiefs to accompany him to Oklahoma to look over several alternative sites for a new Ponca Reservation there. 6 Best Things to Do in Ponca City, Oklahoma. By March 1879, Standing Bear and his followers had reached the Omaha Reservation in Nebraska, and the Omaha Chief Iron Eyes took pity on them, and offered food and asylum. However, attacks on the Omaha and Iowa villages by the Dakotas forced both the Omaha and the Iowa to leave the “bad village” site and migrate further south along the Missouri River. While the Mormons were there, 9 Ponca chiefs and sub-chiefs arrived on the 8th of August 1846, intending to seek peace negotiations with the Pawnee. Drum – principle chief of Fish Smell Village. Ponca City Public Schools . (Duncan, 1997, p. 59) the Ponca then made first contact with French traders in 1794. Historic Tribes: Ponka. Fancy Dance Casino is owned and operated by The Ponca Enterprise Gaming, LLC (PEG), a subsidiary of the Ponca Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma. BORN. Federal troops were called in to enforce the removal orders, and by May 1877, the Ponca had begun their forced migration to “the hot country.”. In the early 1800s, the Ponca were still a semi-sedentary tribe living in earth lodges that the Arikara taught them and the Omaha how to construct. It is believed that it was here, prior to 1673, that the Omaha’s sacred cedar pole was cut, an important religious object, and afterward the Omaha assigned each clan and sub-clan its particular customs and duties (Dorsey, 1884, pp. Ponca Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma, Ponca City, Oklahoma. 211-213) and Howard (1965, p. 11), the Ponca built a fortified village by themselves by Ponca Creek near the Niobrara River when the group reached the vicinity of present day Niobrara, Nebraska, in what is now Knox County. Ponca Tribe of Oklahoma Tribal Historic Preservation Office; Keeping tribal members up to date on the land office happenings for the Ponca Tribal Land Office. Allen, Delkhina dau. During the war of 1812, the Ponca and the Omaha allied with the United States, while the Sauk, who held territories northeast of the Omaha, allied with the British. The Ponca Tribe of Oklahoma is a tribal government that is comprised of 3783 members now located 5 miles south of Ponca City in the White Eagle Community. Another location was found for them on the west bank of the Arkansas River, covering both sides of the Salt Fork River in North-Central Oklahoma near what is now Ponca City. Storms, along with poor road and traveling conditions, greatly impeded their journey, causing a lot of suffering and deaths. Throughout the 1700s the Ponca were referenced in various maps and literature as living between Ponca Creek and the Niobrara River in North-central Nebraska. 1 History; 2 Records; 3 Agency Records. Although Standing Bear and his followers were freed in the spring of 1879, they had no home to return to in Nebraska. By the time the Lewis and Clark expedition reached the Ponca village in September 1804, on the lower side of Ponca Creek, about two miles from the Missouri River, the Ponca had become quite familiar with Europeans. As a result, two prominent attorneys decided that a writ of habeas corpus, asking for 14th Amendment protection, could prevent the Ponca from being forcibly returned to their reservation in Oklahoma. They were quartered in tipis they had brought with them, as no other provisions had been made by the government for their accommodation. Language Group . Dissatisfied with the reservation system established after the Civil War, reformers and politicians decided to assimilate American Indians by forcing private ownership of land. Present Day Tribes: Ponca Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma Ponca Tribe of Nebraska. They settled in present-day Nebraska and South Dakota. A fact that still provides modern-day Ponca with a certain level of pride. If you have additional information about this cemetery, please e-mail area coordinator. Later during the 1600s, the Ponca, Omaha, Osage and Kansas that went upriver along the Mississippi, stayed for a time near present day Osage and Gasconde Counties in Missouri, west of present day St. Louis. Peter Wilson, acting on behalf of Maj. Benjamin O’Fallon, visited a group of Ponca at the mouth of the Niobrara River. Chief Standing Bear's daughter Prairie Flower, and his wife Shines White, were among those who died along the way. Occasionally, small elements of the Lakota would sometimes raid the Ponca as well, taking horses or stealing corn they had grown. United States Department of the Interior. Treaties. In addition, 350 head of cattle, and 600 horses were recorded, along with wagons that had been provided. By 1906, just one year prior to Oklahoma statehood, the total Ponca population was 833, divided as 570 Southern Ponca in Oklahoma and 263 Northern Ponca in Nebraska. 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