Minority populations in the main Western-European countries of immigration, 1950–1975 (thousands and last column % of total population), Source: Castles et al. The outbreak of World War I reduced immigration from Europe, but mass immigration resumed upon the war's conclusion, and Congress responded with a new immigration policy: the national-origins quota system passed in 1921 and revised in 1924. Others, such as the Algerian harkis (auxiliaries in the French colonial army) in France, Asian Ugandans in Britain, and a substantial share of Surinamese in the Netherlands, arrived during or after independence (ibid.). Some of these migrants, as for example from the new Commonwealth, came for economic reasons (Page Moch 2003). The analyses on flows of migration are supplemented by a sketch of the residing immigrant population across Europe. 5. Where generally circular and return migration of intra-EU movers is high, this seems especially so for those who are young, single, and do not have children (see, e.g., Bijwaard 2010; Braun and Arsene 2009; Kleinepier et al. In this chapter we addressed the first key actor of the binomials presented in Chap. In 1992, the UK joined other EU nations in signing the Maastricht Treaty on European integration. The conclusion summarizes the main patterns and discusses some implications of our findings. Obviously this analysis does not do justice to more recent moves from Southern Europe to North-Western Europe, but data to make similar analyses are not yet at hand. See Castles et al. Boyle, P., Halfacree, K., & Robinson, V. (1998). For Spain, non-European migrants mainly originate from Morocco and Latin American countries, and Spanish migrants emigrate to Latin American countries such as Argentina and Venezuela (INE 2014). Both may shift in the course of time. (For a short history of the EU see here) EU citizens can now reside legally in the UK as a job-seeker, a worker, a student or as persons of independent means. The first group consists of countries where intra-EU immigration and emigration comprises the largest share of migration movements. Greece, Italy, Portugal, and Spain had long been emigration countries. Moreover, it should be noted that these categories report only the main migration motive as captured in the official statistics. Between 1950 and 1990, 12 million people migrated from East to West (Fassmann and Münz 1992), many of them to Germany. European Union (EU), international organization comprising 27 European countries and governing common economic, social, and security policies. Each year, there is a cap on the total number of visas that the U.S. can issue. The UK negotiates an optout on both. One of the most important elements in this period has been the removal of barriers to intra-European mobility, while migration into the EU has become more restricted. Goldscheider, C., Bernhardt, E., & Goldscheider, F. (2008). Abel, G. J. In sum, patterns of intra-EU migration are becoming increasingly diverse. (2013). The UK attracts a considerable number of migrants from ex-colonies such as India and Pakistan (Office for National Statistics 2011). 1. The European Investment Bank is the EU bank. 1998). Raymer, J., De Beer, J., & Van der Erf, R. (2011). Portugal, in contrast, experienced return migration from its former colonies, where fierce and violent struggles for independence were under way. 2006; Poulain et al. 1998, 27). This policy brief addresses the underlying mechanisms of policy development around migration and asylum and identifies areas where reform to EU institutions is needed. The share of non-EU nationals in these movements barely surpasses 4 % in the countries for which statistics are available: 1.8 % in Germany, 3.6 % in Austria, 3.7 % in Finland, 2.3 % in the Netherlands, and 1.2 % in the UK (ibid.). Furthermore, immigration as a topic has outgrown the Home Affairs portfolio, and as such needs to be addressed in a more cross-cutting fashion, involving multiple spheres of government. Figure. Vilar, J. During this time North-Western European governments increasingly restricted migration, and migrants’ main route of entrance became family reunification and family formation. the annual number of immigrants from any given country to 3 percent of the. The construction of the Berlin Wall in 1961, however, put a stop to the latter. As a result, the need for adequate integration policies became apparent, and such policies slowly started to develop (see Doomernik and Bruquetas in this volume). Murray, R., Harding, D., Angus, T., Gillespie, R., & Arora, H. (2012). 1998). Pieke, F., Nyiri, P., Thuno, M., & Ceccagno, A. Moreover, student migration from outside the EU became increasingly important in some parts of the EU (ibid.). This is perhaps because many migrants from outside Europe have found other routes of arrival, including irregular entrance and stay. Besides migration between Eastern Europe and several other EU countries, migration flows have been considerable between the UK, France, and Spain. The UK Government's proposals on immigration are set out in the December 2018 White Paper on The UK 's Future Skills-Based Immigration System , which draws on prior recommendations from the Migration Advisory Committee ( MAC ). However, European governments gradually enlarged their zones of recruitment to countries outside Europe. Open Access This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 2.5 License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.5/) which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited. Between 2002 and 2006, asylum applications in the EU-15 decreased from 393,000 to 180,000 (ibid.). The EU’s common currency is the euro. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves. Twenty years later, at the beginning of the 1970s, these numbers had increased substantially in both absolute and relative terms (Table 3.1). It should be noted, however, that statistical data on migration and mobility in Europe is mostly incomplete, as they are based mainly on reports and registrations of the individuals concerned. 2014; Fassmann and Münz 1992, 1994). Poulain, M., Perrin, N., & Singleton, A. After the migration stop, countries increasingly controlled entries of foreigners, and migration became an important topic in national political and public debates (Bonifazi 2008; see also Doomernik & Bruquetas in this volume). Population pyramid of migrants from Poland to Germany (a) and Germany to Poland (b), 2008 (%), Population pyramid of Polish migrants to the Netherlands, 2009 (%). Part of Springer Nature. The 1924 quota system remained largely in place until the 1960s, when a new law established a new system. Bijwaard, G. (2010). It is important to bear these different periods in mind when studying current migration flows in Europe. The number of foreign residents kept rising, due to a change in European migration systems from circular to chain migration and the related natural growth of migrant populations. 2014). In M. Poulain, N. Perrin, & A. Singleton (Eds.). Although European migrants returning from the colonies were often quickly able to insert themselves into the social fabric of the mother country, this was less the case for those of non-European origin who were economically and socially deprived and also often discriminated (Bade 2003). Regimes of mobility across the globe. Asylum is a fundamental right and an international obligation for countries, as recognised in the 1951 Geneva Convention on the protection of refugees. European countries had been making war against one another since the Middle Ages. In this context, several European countries, such as France, Germany, the Netherlands, and the UK simplified procedures for international students to make the education-to-work transition (Tremblay 2005; Van Mol 2014). 2011). MPI Europe, in a research initiative that began in January 2014, is focusing on addressing the challenges confronting the EU asylum system and identifying practical ideas for the immediate and longer term to strengthen the Common European Asylum System consistent with the European Union’s interests, values, and obligations. | ph are high, absolute numbers ) demographic ) behaviour of migrant populations significantly grew the... Immigration country, 1970–1999 ( thousands ), international organization comprising 27 European countries and a common external border (! Policy, a policy towards nationals of third countries and a common asylum and immigration policy Gaalen R.! Gradually enlarged their zones of recruitment to countries outside Europe for people fleeing or. P. Simon ( Eds. ) European—countries supplied workers to North-Western European countries received return as... ; Kupiszewska and Nowok 2008 ; Nowok et al and includes a chapter social. 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